We will now present the seven steps in carrying out Barrier Analysis.
Keep in mind as we discuss these that we will be trying out two
different ways to do Barrier Analysis in this workshop: (1) through
focus groups, and (2) through individual interviews. These two approaches,
with their advantages and disadvantages, will be described in Session
11 in Part Two of this facilitator’s guide.
Define the Goal, Behavior, and
Target Group: During this step, you will decide what
you want to happen as a result of your behavior change communication.
For example, your goal may be to have more children who are
well nourished or fewer married couples who become HIV positive.
You will need to decide what specific behavior will be the focus
of your analysis and who your target group should be when you
are trying to change the behavior. For example, you may choose
to focus on exclusive breastfeeding of children under six months
of age or marital faithfulness. Your target group in the first
instance may be mothers of infants, and in the second instance
couples in long-term relationships.
Develop the Behavior Question:
Since we will be comparing those who do the behavior and those
who do not, you will first need to develop a question to determine
if the person responding to your questions does or does not
do the behavior.
Develop Questions about Determinants:
This is one of the hardest parts of carrying out Barrier Analysis.
Later we will discuss guidelines for how to write questions
for each barrier or determinant and give you a chance to practice.
Organize the Analysis Sessions:
This is where you will choose communities for collecting Barrier
Analysis field data.
Collect Field Data for Barrier
Option #1 – Collecting Field Data for Barrier Analysis
through Focus Groups: In this workshop, we will not be providing
a full training in how to organize and facilitate focus groups;
there is written guidance on that from many sources if you need
it. But we will discuss how to prepare a question guide for
use in these focus groups.
Option #2 – Collecting Field Data for Barrier Analysis
through Individual Interviews: Another way to collect field
data for Barrier Analysis is to interview individually people
who regularly do the behavior that you wish to promote (the
“Doers”) and compare their answers to the responses
of those you have interviewed who do not do the behavior (the
“Non-Doers”). We will discuss how to set up this
quantitative survey if you choose that option.
Organizing and Analyzing the
Results: Once you have conducted the Barrier Analysis
sessions you will organize and analyze your results from focus
groups and individual interviews.
- Use the Results of Barrier Analysis:
This is the most important part. After tabulating or organizing
the data from your analysis, you need to decide what changes you
need to make in your program design, in the behavior change messages
you will use, and in the groups that you will target. You will
also need to decide how to monitor changes in the determinants
during the life of your project.