Now we will look at how the sixth step in
Barrier Analysis is carried out when you have used option
#2 - individual interviews. We will use the example of ORS.
Develop a coding guide
similar to the one below to hold the data. You will tabulate
the proportions of Doers and Non-Doers answering each
Let’s say that you were looking at the positive
attributes of the behavior, “using ORS when your
child has diarrhea.” One question that you may have
in your questionnaire to examine that determinant is,
“What do you see as the advantages or good things
that (would) happen if/when you used ORS when your child
Let’s say that the responses seen for that question
are: “Can prepare quickly, low cost of packet, easy
to make, child’s older sister can make it when I’m
not home”. As you go through each questionnaire,
make tic marks to register the responses on each questionnaire.
For this type of questionnaire, you may have more than
one response per questionnaire. Your
table would look like this.
For closed (yes/no) questions (e.g., “When a person
exclusively breastfeeds a child for the first six months
of life, does that help to avoid diarrhea in the child?”),
you can make up a coding sheet using the responses included
in the questionnaire (e.g., Yes, No, Don’t Know).
As you go through each questionnaire, make tick marks
to register the responses on each questionnaire. Your
table would look something like this.
For another example, refer to The
“Exercise” Exercise page, which provides
a complete questionnaire and its accompanying coding guide.
Divide the questionnaires
into two stacks: people who reported THEY DID DO
THE BEHAVIOR (e.g., used ORS) versus those who reported
THEY DID NOT DO THE BEHAVIOR (e.g., did not use ORS).
- Mark each questionnaire:
For the stack of questionnaires from those who reported
YES, mark each sheet of the questionnaire with a “D”
for “Doer.” For the stack from respondents who
reported NO, mark each sheet with “ND” for “Non-Doer.”
Keep the stacks separate
and divide each stack among your staff who are tabulating
The tabulator should look at each participant’s
responses and try to find the same or a very similar response
on the coding sheet illustrated above. If the tabulator
finds a genuinely different response, write the response
on the “Other” line and add a tick mark in
the appropriate column of the coding guide
As each response is coded, the tabulator should place
a tick mark next to that response in either the “Doer”
or “Non-Doer” column of the coding guide,
depending on the stack from which it came (“D”
or “ND”). At the same time, the tabulator
should place a check on the questionnaire beside that
question to indicate that the response has now been coded.
Tabulators should register a tick mark for each different
response, even if some seem similar.
Once all questionnaires
have been tabulated, calculate percentages for each possible
response. To do that, first write down in each
cell the total number of tick marks in that cell. Then
calculate percentages by using the total number of “D”
questionnaires as the denominator for the “Doers”
column. Use the total number of “ND” questionnaires
as the denominator for the “Non-Doers” column.
Now look for five or six
of the biggest differences in percentages between the
Doers and Non-Doers responses, or responses where there
was surprisingly little difference between Doers and Non-Doers.
Keep in mind the following:
- When Doers and Non-Doers report similar percentages
for any item, that item is not a likely determinant of
the behavior for this target group.
When Doers’ responses are radically different
from Non-Doers’ responses, that item is very likely
an important determinant of the behavior for this target
This rapid survey technique is not a rigorous statistical
analysis of your findings. Therefore, when we speak
of “differences” between responses of Doers
and Non-Doers, it is important to look for relatively
“big” differences, that is, differences
of more than a few percentage points. If you calculate
confidence intervals on each proportion, you will be
looking for differences where the confidence intervals
do not overlap. If all overlap, it means your sample
size should be larger. In that case, you can still look
for those with the smallest amount of overlap; these
differences will be the ones that are more likely to
be important.If you have a larger number of people in
your sample (e.g., 300), smaller differences may be
significant. For small samples (e.g., 60 people), only
larger differences (>30 percentage points) are generally
Knowledge about the health benefits of the behavior
will often be very similar among Doers and Non-Doers
and therefore often not a practical focus for an intervention.
Doers’ responses may include ideas for strategies
on how to make the behavior easier or more appealing,
and could provide clues for messages to Non-Doers. Examine
Sometimes more Doers list a particular disadvantage
of the behavior than do Non-Doers. This may simply indicate
that the Doers are more familiar with the behavior.
Despite familiarity with the disadvantage, they have
overcome it to be Doers. Program planners will need
to consider whether a difference between Doers and Non-Doers,
in this case, indicates an item that the intervention
should address. They may need to talk further with Doers
and Non-Doers to determine what to do with such data.
Looking at differences between Doers and Non-Doers
regarding those who approve or disapprove of the behavior
may provide important information on who to target for
your intervention. If differences are noted, this implies
that you may need to work with a different target group
than you had originally intended. You may first have
to work with the “influentials” to change
their attitudes towards the behavior (e.g., convincing
mothers-in-law that ORS is good for their grandchildren).
To summarize your results
for program planning, list your selected findings in a
table like the Sample
Individual Interview Results Table
(61kb). (An actual Barrier
Analysis results table would have more rows since it would
be summarizing more questions.) In the Research Findings
column, list the findings for each determinant (summarizing
the questions) and then report the percentage of Doers
and Non-Doers for those findings in columns 2 and 3. Leave
the “Implications” and “Program Focus”
columns blank for the moment.
- Now you should discuss
the results from the Barrier Analysis and how it should
affect your program planning. Make notes (on newsprint)
about the implications of the results and to what degree
your program or intervention should focus on that determinant.
In the “Implications” column, mention whether
there is a significant difference between Doers and Non-Doers,
whether the intervention should target each determinant
analyzed, and whether an intervention is likely to change
the situation. Add to your table the implications and to
what degree the program or intervention should focus on
the determinant/barrier.Your summary could look something
like: Research findings table