Through Focus Groups
Now we come to the fifth step in the process: collecting field
data for Barrier Analysis.
Field data for Barrier Analysis can be collected through focus
groups by organizing three focus groups or more per behavior to
be studied. By collecting the data in two to three separate groups,
you can see if the results that you are finding can be generalized
to the larger project area. If results vary greatly from one focus
group to another, you may need to conduct more focus groups until
you get a better idea of the true reality. If different cultural
groups are present in an area, a separate set of focus groups should
be done for each cultural group of importance (because behaviors
often vary greatly between different groups).
During the focus groups, one or more Facilitators from your organization
should conduct the discussion using the focus group guide developed
earlier (see Session 14) with questions on each of the eight barriers
and positive attributes of the action. Choose someone for the
Facilitator role who has been trained in the use of Focus Groups.
the Hungry's sample focus group training notes.
One or more Reporters should also be designated, separate from
the Facilitator, to take detailed notes of what people say during
the focus group. Choose people for the Reporter role who can write
quickly and give attention to detail. As they write up the results,
they should also note what sort of attitudes they sense in the
participants (e.g., based on their tone of voice and body language).
If the group being interviewed feels comfortable with having its
conversation taped, a tape recorder can be used to later aid in
analysis. If anyone in the group is not comfortable with being taped,
a recorder should not be used.
Through Individual Interviews
Field data for Barrier Analysis can also be collected through individual
interviews of 60 or more people. Preferably, you will want to interview
at least 30 Doers and 30 Non-Doers in order to be able to compare
the two groups. The questionnaire used during this survey is the
one developed earlier (see Developing Questions about Determinants)
for individual interviews. These questions are also based on the
eight barriers and positive attributes associated with the behavior.
Examples of Proper and Improper
and Analyzing the Results)